Farming and rearing of animals; This constitute the means of livelihoods of about 80% of the population of the state. The state is a major collection centre for cash crops such as cotton, groundnuts and food crops such as maize, guinea corn, millet, and vegetables. The range of livestock in the state is cattle, sheep, goat and poultry. In other words it is has greatly increases their economic properties in the 18th century.
Agricultural production; These is another economic properties of kastina in the 18th century is Agricultural production The city is the centre of an agricultural region producing groundnuts, cotton, hides, millet and guinea corn and also has mills for producing peanut oil and steel. The city is largely Muslim, and the population of the city is mainly from the Fulani ethnic group.
Mineral resources; they are also blessed with abundant mineral resources that could be tapped for industrial growth. Prominent amongst these include: lead, iron oxide, gold, iron ore, manganese, kaolin, silica sands, fire clay, asbestos, feldspars, mica, serpentine, gemstones, precious stones etc.
The struggle for power between the Shuwa and Kanuri people in Borno caused a division that eventually led to the decline of the empire and borno lost its trade to Sokoto in the West and the control of the Eastern trans-Saharan trade routes which was the bedrock of the empire’s greatness was also lost. In other words the peasants were neglected and the dynasty made more demands on the meager resources of the poor. Although the dynasty ended, the kingdom of Kanem-Bornu survived. Umar could not match his father’s vitality ,and gradually allowed the kingdom to be ruled by advisers. Bornu began a further decline as a result of administrative disorganization, regional particularism, and attacks by the militant Ouaddai Empire to the east. The decline continued under Umar’s sons. In 1893, Rabih az-Zubayr led an invading army from eastern Sudan and conquered Bornu. Following his expulsion shortly thereafter, the state was absorbed by the British-ruled entity that eventually became known as Nigeria. From that point on, a remnant of the old kingdom was (and still is) allowed to continue to exist in subjection to the various governments of the country as the Borno Emirate.
(5). The British expedition against the Yoruba kingdom of Ijebu-Ode (Nigeria) in 1892 variously affected different Ijebu communities. Epe, a composite town consisting of immigrants from Lagos, the Eko-Epe, and Ijebu indigenes, is a case in point. Kosoko, a distant relative of the Awujale (king) of Ijebu-Ode, and king of Lagos, who had been driven from Lagos on 28 December 1851, administered Epe and its outlying lagoon villages as a State virtually independent of the Ijebu-Ode kingdom. Shortly after Kosoko’s return to Lagos, the Ijebu indigenes began to react against measures relegating them to the political background. The political situation in Epe was further exacerbated by the British expedition. As a result of the Ijebu defeat, Epe was formally placed under the British colonial administration and made part of the colony of Lagos, while Ijebu Ode came under the jurisdiction of the Lagos Protectorate. The expedition increased ethnic acrimony in Epe, with the Ijebu-Epe denouncing the Eko-Epe’s assistance to the British invaders. The Ijebu-Epe demanded and got their own separate Native Council, and the town was divided into two separate administrative areas. However, the new dispensation fell short of Ijebu aspirations and in the years 1905-1920 intergroup conflict intensified until administrative reorganizations in 1921 and 1925 put an end to Eko-Epe political dominance. Notes, ref.
Removal of sectionalism; the Clifford constitution is the fact that it brought sectionalism into the politics of Nigeria. The Richard constitution which immediately followed the Clifford constitution sought to correct this. The constitution therefore sought to promote the unity of Nigeria.
Introduction of federalism; The Richard constitution is credited to have introduced the federal idea into the Nigerian body politics. This is because the constitution made provision for the creation of three regions, each with its Regional Legislative Council. This gave the indication that Nigeria may become a federal state in the future.
More consultative than Clifford constitution; There was more consultation with the Nigerians in the introduction of the Richard constitution. Though this was the case, the Richard constitution is also criticized for not engaging in enough consultation with the broad masses of Nigerians before its promulgation.
• The Limited powers of Obas: In my last article about the pre-colonial administration od the Yorubas (west), i explained how the principle of checks and balances control the west.
• Education: Education played a significant role in the partial success of the system of indirect rule in the west.
• Less submissiveness of the people: Another reason why the system partially succeeded in the West was because, the subjects were not as submissive as their counterparts in the North.This made them not to accept indirect rule blindly.
• Religion: Majority of the Yorubas were christians and Christianity is not as conservative as its counterpart in the North-islam.Christians therefore questioned the reasons for the introduction of indirect rule.
• Restoring authority In the Alafin Of Oyo: It is generally believed that the attempt made by lugard to restore authority in Yorubaland to the Alaafin Of Oyo instead of Ooni of Ife contributed immensely to the partial success of indirect rule in the West.
Politicization of the Army;
One of the major reasons for military intervention in Nigeria’s politics in 1966 was the politicization of the Army. Following the independence of Nigeria, almost all the regions in Nigeria seeked to take total control of the military so as to use it as weapon over other regions. The Nigerian army was seriously politicized to the extent that appointments and promotions were based on tribe and political sentiments rather than seniority and merit.
Lack of free and fair election; After Nigeria got independence in 1960 the political system of the country was so damaged that even a free and fair election could not be conducted. In the election that brought Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe and Alhaji Tafawa Balewa as leaders of Nigeria, there was so much corruption and doubt about the result of the election.
Corruption; Apparently, corruption was also a major causative factor for the frequent military intervention in Nigeria in 1966. The military had to take over power because the rate of corruption in Nigeria was becoming unbearable. Nigeria was ranked the most corrupt country in Africa. Politicians became so corrupt and the economy of the country was mismanaged. The wealth of the country was spent recklessly and this encouraged incessant military coups in the country.
Political ambition of the military; I must not forget to mention that the military also intervened in the politics of Nigeria solely because of their political ambition. After independence, the military had the urge to take-over power from civilians, because they thought that they should be the once to rule the country since they have the responsibility to defend the territorial integrity and other core interests of the nation